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5o4                 HISTORY OF PERSIA                CHAP.
Khan, who replied in similar terms. He was there-
upon dismissed from his post, and became bitterly hostile
to the Amin-u-Sultan, and in a lesser degree to the Shah.
Determined to take revenge, Malkom Khan, with the
co-operation of Jamal-u-Din, published the paper Kanun, or
" Law," referred to above. In it he recommended a fixed
code of laws and the assembly of a parliament. He
denounced his enemy the Amin-u-Sultan in violent terms ;
and the Minister, in retaliation, punished any one who
took in the obnoxious paper.1 The influence of the Kanun,
which was written in excellent Persian, was considerable ;
and Malkom Khan, though scarcely a disinterested patriot,
certainly roused Persia more than any previous writer had
succeeded in doing,
The Ayn-u-Dola.—In 1903, upon the dismissal for
the second time of Asghar Ali, the Atabeg-i-Aa%am^ by
MuzafFar-u-Din, a council of five Ministers was con-
stituted to carry on the Government; but very soon
afterwards the Ayn-u-Dola, a prince of the blood and
son-in-law of the Shah, was appointed Minister of the
Interior and assumed control of affairs. In the following
year he was given the title of Sadr-i-Aazam, and he
continued in this office until August 1906. Thus the
Ayn-u-Dola was the Minister under whose rule the con-
stitutionalists won their great victories ; and, as many
Persians consider that the conflict was brought about
mainly by his reactionary stubborn character, His High-
ness calls for special notice.
As a youth he was educated in Teheran at a college
which had been recently founded by Nasir-u-Din. There
the professors apparently found him intractable ; for they
presented a petition to the Shah in which they stated
that they had tried flogging, starvation and other punish-
ments, all in vain, and requested His Majesty to remove
the unpromising pupil. The Shah consented and sent
the young Prince to Tabriz, to serve Muzaffar-u-Din.
He grew up with his new master, became his Master
of the Horse, and was honoured by the hand of his
1 It was smuggled in among bales of calico or through foreign subjects and was
rarely sent by post.